Nebraska Drug Laws

28-405
Controlled substances; schedules; enumerated

The following are the schedules of controlled substances referred to in the Uniform Controlled Substances Act:

Schedule I

(a) Any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) Acetylmethadol;

(2) Allylprodine;

(3) Alphacetylmethadol, except levo-alphacetylmethadol which is also known as levo-alpha-acetylmethadol, levomethadyl acetate, and LAAM;

(4) Alphameprodine;

(5) Alphamethadol;

(6) Benzethidine;

(7) Betacetylmethadol;

(8) Betameprodine;

(9) Betamethadol;

(10) Betaprodine;

(11) Clonitazene;

(12) Dextromoramide;

(13) Difenoxin;

(14) Diampromide;

(15) Diethylthiambutene;

(16) Dimenoxadol;

(17) Dimepheptanol;

(18) Dimethylthiambutene;

(19) Dioxaphetyl butyrate;

(20) Dipipanone;

(21) Ethylmethylthiambutene;

(22) Etonitazene;

(23) Etoxeridine;

(24) Furethidine;

(25) Hydroxypethidine;

(26) Ketobemidone;

(27) Levomoramide;

(28) Levophenacylmorphan;

(29) Morpheridine;

(30) Noracymethadol;

(31) Norlevorphanol;

(32) Normethadone;

(33) Norpipanone;

(34) Phenadoxone;

(35) Phenampromide;

(36) Phenomorphan;

(37) Phenoperidine;

(38) Piritramide;

(39) Proheptazine;

(40) Properidine;

(41) Propiram;

(42) Racemoramide;

(43) Trimeperidine;

(44) Alpha-methylfentanyl, N-(1-(alpha-methyl-beta-phenyl)ethyl-4-piperidyl) propionanilide, 1-(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-4-(N-propanilido) piperidine;

(45) Tilidine;

(46) 3-Methylfentanyl, N-(3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl)-N-phenylpropanamide, its optical and geometric isomers, salts, and salts of isomers;

(47) 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine (MPPP), its optical isomers, salts, and salts of isomers;

(48) PEPAP, 1-(2-phenethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidine, its optical isomers, salts, and salts of isomers;

(49) Acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl, N-(1-(1-methyl-2-phenethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylacetamide, its optical isomers, salts, and salts of isomers;

(50) Alpha-methylthiofentanyl, N-(1-methyl-2-(2-thienyl)ethyl-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropanamide, its optical isomers, salts, and salts of isomers;

(51) Benzylfentanyl, N-(1-benzyl-4-piperidyl)-N-phenylpropanamide, its optical isomers, salts, and salts of isomers;

(52) Beta-hydroxyfentanyl, N-(1-(2-hydroxy-2-phenethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropanamide, its optical isomers, salts, and salts of isomers;

(53) Beta-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl, (other name: N-(1-(2-hydroxy-2-phenethyl)-3-methyl-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropanamide), its optical and geometric isomers, salts, and salts of isomers;

(54) 3-methylthiofentanyl, N-(3-methyl-1-(2-thienyl)ethyl-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropanamide, its optical and geometric isomers, salts, and salts of isomers;

(55) N-(1-(2-thienyl)methyl-4-piperidyl)-N-phenylpropanamide (thenylfentanyl), its optical isomers, salts, and salts of isomers;

(56) Thiofentanyl, N-phenyl-N-(1-(2-thienyl)ethyl-4-piperidinyl)-propanamide, its optical isomers, salts, and salts of isomers; and

(57) Para-fluorofentanyl, N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-(2-phenethyl)-4-piperidinyl)propanamide, its optical isomers, salts, and salts of isomers.

(b) Any of the following opium derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) Acetorphine;

(2) Acetyldihydrocodeine;

(3) Benzylmorphine;

(4) Codeine methylbromide;

(5) Codeine-N-Oxide;

(6) Cyprenorphine;

(7) Desomorphine;

(8) Dihydromorphine;

(9) Drotebanol;

(10) Etorphine, except hydrochloride salt;

(11) Heroin;

(12) Hydromorphinol;

(13) Methyldesorphine;

(14) Methyldihydromorphine;

(15) Morphine methylbromide;

(16) Morphine methylsulfonate;

(17) Morphine-N-Oxide;

(18) Myrophine;

(19) Nicocodeine;

(20) Nicomorphine;

(21) Normorphine;

(22) Pholcodine; and

(23) Thebacon.

(c) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation, and, for purposes of this subdivision only, isomer shall include the optical, position, and geometric isomers:

(1) Bufotenine. Trade and other names shall include, but are not limited to: 3-(beta-Dimethylaminoethyl)-5-hydroxyindole; 3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-5-indolol; N,N-dimethylserotonin; 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine; and mappine;

(2) 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine. Trade and other names shall include, but are not limited to: 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine; and 4-bromo-2,5-DMA;

(3) 4-methoxyamphetamine. Trade and other names shall include, but are not limited to: 4-methoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine; and paramethoxyamphetamine, PMA;

(4) 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine. Trade and other names shall include, but are not limited to: 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxy-alpha-methylphenethylamine; DOM; and STP;

(5) Ibogaine. Trade and other names shall include, but are not limited to: 7-Ethyl-6,6beta,7,8,9,10,12,13-octahydro-2-methoxy-6,9-methano-5H-pyrido (1',2':1,2) azepino (5,4-b) indole; and Tabernanthe iboga;

(6) Lysergic acid diethylamide;

(7) Marijuana;

(8) Mescaline;

(9) Peyote. Peyote shall mean all parts of the plant presently classified botanically as Lophophora williamsii Lemaire, whether growing or not, the seeds thereof, any extract from any part of such plant, and every compound, manufacture, salts, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant or its seeds or extracts;

(10) Psilocybin;

(11) Psilocyn;

(12) Tetrahydrocannabinols, including, but not limited to, synthetic equivalents of the substances contained in the plant or in the resinous extractives of cannabis, sp. or synthetic substances, derivatives, and their isomers with similar chemical structure and pharmacological activity such as the following: Delta 1 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol and their optical isomers, excluding dronabinol in sesame oil and encapsulated in a soft gelatin capsule in a drug product approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration; Delta 6 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol and their optical isomers; and Delta 3,4 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol and its optical isomers. Since nomenclature of these substances is not internationally standardized, compounds of these structures shall be included regardless of the numerical designation of atomic positions covered;

(13) N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate;

(14) N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate;

(15) Thiophene analog of phencyclidine. Trade and other names shall include, but are not limited to: 1-(1-(2-thienyl)-cyclohexyl)-piperidine; 2-thienyl analog of phencyclidine; TPCP; and TCP;

(16) Hashish or concentrated cannabis;

(17) Parahexyl. Trade and other names shall include, but are not limited to: 3-Hexyl-1-hydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran; and Synhexyl;

(18) Ethylamine analog of phencyclidine. Trade and other names shall include, but are not limited to: N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine; (1-phenylcyclohexyl)ethylamine; N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)ethylamine; cyclohexamine; and PCE;

(19) Pyrrolidine analog of phencyclidine. Trade and other names shall include, but are not limited to: 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-pyrrolidine; PCPy; and PHP;

(20) Alpha-ethyltryptamine. Some trade or other names: etryptamine; Monase; alpha-ethyl-1H-indole-3-ethanamine; 3-(2-aminobutyl) indole; alpha-ET; and AET;

(21) 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphet-amine; and DOET;

(22) 1-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)pyrrolidine; and TCPy;

(23) Alpha-methyltryptamine, which is also known as AMT;

(24) Salvia divinorum or Salvinorin A. Salvia divinorum or Salvinorin A includes all parts of the plant presently classified botanically as Salvia divinorum, whether growing or not, the seeds thereof, any extract from any part of such plant, and every compound, manufacture, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds, or its extracts, including salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation;

(25) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any quantity of synthetically produced cannabinoids as listed in subdivisions (A) through (M) of this subdivision, including their salts, isomers, salts of isomers, and nitrogen-heterocyclic analogs, unless specifically excepted elsewhere in this section. Since nomenclature of these synthetically produced cannabinoids is not internationally standardized and may continually evolve, these structures or compounds of these structures shall be included under this subdivision, regardless of their specific numerical designation of atomic positions covered, so long as it can be determined through a recognized method of scientific testing or analysis that the substance contains properties that fit within one or more of the following categories:

(A) Tetrahydrocannabinols: Meaning tetrahydrocannabinols naturally contained in a plant of the genus cannabis (cannabis plant), as well as synthetic equivalents of the substances contained in the plant, or in the resinous extractives of cannabis, sp. and/or synthetic substances, derivatives, and their isomers with similar chemical structure and pharmacological activity such as the following: Delta 1 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol, and their optical isomers; Delta 6 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol, and their optical isomers; Delta 3,4 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol, and its optical isomers;

(B) Naphthoylindoles: Any compound containing a 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, cyanoalkyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent;

(C) Naphthylmethylindoles: Any compound containing a 1 H-indol-3-yl-(1-naphthyl)methane structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, cyanoalkyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent;

(D) Naphthoylpyrroles: Any compound containing a 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, cyanoalkyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent;

(E) Naphthylideneindenes: Any compound containing a naphthylideneindene structure with substitution at the 3-position of the indene ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, cyanoalkyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent;

(F) Phenylacetylindoles: Any compound containing a 3-phenylacetylindole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, cyanoalkyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent;

(G) Cyclohexylphenols: Any compound containing a 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol structure with substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, cyanoalkyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, whether or not substituted in the cyclohexyl ring to any extent;

(H) Benzoylindoles: Any compound containing a 3-(benzoyl)indole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, cyanoalkyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent;

(I) Adamantoylindoles: Any compound containing a 3-adamantoylindole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the adamantyl ring to any extent;

(J) Tetramethylcyclopropanoylindoles: Any compound containing a 3-tetramethylcyclopropanoylindole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the tetramethylcycloproplyl ring to any extent;

(K) Indole carboxamides: Any compound containing a 1-indole-3-carboxamide structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, halobenzyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, substitution at the carboxamide group by an adamantyl, 1-naphthyl, phenyl, or aminooxoalkyl group, whether or not further substituted in any of the ring systems to any extent;

(L) Indole carboxylates: Any compound containing a 1-indole-3-carboxylate structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or tetrahydropyranylmethyl group, substitution at the carboxylate group by an adamantyl, 1-naphthyl, phenyl or quinolinyl group, whether or not further substituted in any of the ring systems to any extent; and

(M) Any nonnaturally occurring substance, chemical compound, mixture, or preparation, not specifically listed elsewhere in these schedules and which is not approved for human consumption by the federal Food and Drug Administration, containing or constituting a cannabinoid receptor agonist as defined in section 28-401;

(26) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any quantity of a substituted phenethylamine as listed in subdivisions (A) through (C) of this subdivision, unless specifically excepted, listed in another schedule, or specifically named in this schedule, that is structurally derived from phenylethan-2-amine by substitution on the phenyl ring with a fused methylenedioxy ring, fused furan ring, or a fused tetrahydrofuran ring; by substitution with two alkoxy groups; by substitution with one alkoxy and either one fused furan, tetrahydrofuran, or tetrahydropyran ring system; or by substitution with two fused ring systems from any combination of the furan, tetrahydrofuran, or tetrahydropyran ring systems, whether or not the compound is further modified in any of the following ways:

(A) Substitution of the phenyl ring by any halo, hydroxyl, alkyl, trifluoromethyl, alkoxy, or alkylthio groups; (B) substitution at the 2-position by any alkyl groups; or (C) substitution at the 2-amino nitrogen atom with alkyl, dialkyl, benzyl, hydroxybenzyl or methoxybenzyl groups, and including, but not limited to:

(i) 2-(4-Chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-C or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-chlorophenethylamine;

(ii) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-D or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine;

(iii) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenyl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-E or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine;

(iv) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-H or 2,5-Dimethoxyphenethylamine;

(v) 2-(4-lodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-I or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine;

(vi) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-nitro-phenyl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-N or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-nitrophenethylamine;

(vii) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylphenyl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-P or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-propylphenethylamine;

(viii) 2-[4-(Ethylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-T-2 or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine;

(ix) 2-[4-(Isopropylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-T-4 or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-isopropylthiophenethylamine;

(x) 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-B or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine;

(xi) 2-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-(methylthio)phenyl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-T or 4-methylthio-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine;

(xii) 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-propan-2-amine, which is also known as DOI or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine;

(xiii) 1-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane, which is also known as DOB or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine;

(xiv) 1-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)propan-2-amine, which is also known as DOC or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine;

(xv) 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-B-NBOMe; 25B-NBOMe or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromo-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)phenethylamine;

(xvi) 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-I-NBOMe; 25I-NBOMe or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodo-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)phenethylamine;

(xvii) N-(2-Methoxybenzyl)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine, which is also known as Mescaline-NBOMe or 3,4,5-trimethoxy-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)phenethylamine;

(xviii) 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-C-NBOMe; or 25C-NBOMe or 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-chloro-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)phenethylamine;

(xix) 2-(7-Bromo-5-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-4-yl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2CB-5-hemiFLY;

(xx) 2-(8-bromo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrofuro [2,3-f][1]benzofuran-4-yl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-B-FLY;

(xxi) 2-(10-Bromo-2,3,4,7,8,9-hexahydropyrano[2,3-g]chromen-5-yl)ethanamine, which is also known as 2C-B-butterFLY;

(xxii) N-(2-Methoxybenzyl)-1-(8-bromo-2,3,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-4-yl)-2-aminoethane, which is also known as 2C-B-FLY-NBOMe;

(xxiii) 1-(4-Bromofuro[2,3-f][1]benzofuran-8-yl)propan-2-amine, which is also known as bromo-benzodifuranylisopropylamine or bromo-dragonFLY;

(xxiv) N-(2-Hydroxybenzyl)-4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, which is also known as 2C-INBOH or 25I-NBOH;

(xxv) 5-(2-Aminoprpyl)benzofuran, which is also known as 5-APB;

(xxvi) 6-(2-Aminopropyl)benzofuran, which is also known as 6-APB;

(xxvii) 5-(2-Aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, which is also known as 5-APDB;

(xxviii) 6-(2-Aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, which is also known as 6-APDB;

(xxix) 2,5-dimethoxy-amphetamine, which is also known as 2, 5-dimethoxy-a-methylphenethylamine; 2, 5-DMA;

(xxx) 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine, which is also known as DOET;

(xxxi) 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine, which is also known as 2C-T-7;

(xxxii) 5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine;

(xxxiii) 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxy-amphetamine, which is also known as 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxy-amethylphenethylamine; DOM and STP;

(xxxiv) 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine, which is also known as MDA;

(xxxv) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, which is also known as MDMA;

(xxxvi) 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, which is also known as N-ethyl-alpha-methyl-3,4(methylenedioxy)phenethylamine, MDE, MDEA; and

(xxxvii) 3,4,5-trimethoxy amphetamine;

(27) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any quantity of a substituted tryptamine unless specifically excepted, listed in another schedule, or specifically named in this schedule, that is structurally derived from 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine, which is also known as tryptamine, by mono- or di-substitution of the amine nitrogen with alkyl or alkenyl groups or by inclusion of the amino nitrogen atom in a cyclic structure whether or not the compound is further substituted at the alpha position with an alkyl group or whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent with any alkyl, alkoxy, halo, hydroxyl, or acetoxy groups, and including, but not limited to:

(A) 5-methoxy-N,N-diallyltryptamine, which is also known as 5-MeO-DALT;

(B) 4-acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, which is also known as 4-AcO-DMT or OAcetylpsilocin;

(C) 4-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-ethyltryptamine, which is also known as 4-HO-MET;

(D) 4-hydroxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine, which is also known as 4-HO-DIPT;

(E) 5-methoxy-N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine, which is also known as 5-MeOMiPT;

(F) 5-Methoxy-N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, which is also known as 5-MeO-DMT;

(G) 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine, which is also known as 5-MeO-DiPT;

(H) Diethyltryptamine, which is also known as N,N-Diethyltryptamine, DET; and

(I) Dimethyltryptamine, which is also known as DMT; and

(28)(A) Any substance containing any quantity of the following materials, compounds, mixtures, or structures:

(i) 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone, or bk-MDMA, or methylone;

(ii) 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, or MDPV;

(iii) 4-methylmethcathinone, or 4-MMC, or mephedrone;

(iv) 4-methoxymethcathinone, or bk-PMMA, or PMMC, or methedrone;

(v) Fluoromethcathinone, or FMC;

(vi) Naphthylpyrovalerone, or naphyrone; or

(vii) Beta-keto-N-methylbenzodioxolylpropylamine; or

(B) Unless listed in another schedule, any substance which contains any quantity of any material, compound, mixture, or structure, other than buproprion, that is structurally derived by any means from 2-aminopropan-1-one by substitution at the 1-position with either phenyl, naphthyl, or thiophene ring systems, whether or not the compound is further modified in any of the following ways:

(i) Substitution in the ring system to any extent with alkyl, alkoxy, alkylenedioxy, haloalkyl, hydroxyl, or halide substituents, whether or not further substituted in the ring system by one or more other univalent substituents;

(ii) Substitution at the 3-position with an acyclic alkyl substituent; or

(iii) Substitution at the 2-amino nitrogen atom with alkyl or dialkyl groups, or by inclusion of the 2-amino nitrogen atom in a cyclic structure.

(d) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) Mecloqualone;

(2) Methaqualone; and

(3) Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid. Some other names include: GHB; Gamma-hydroxybutyrate; 4-Hydroxybutyrate; 4-Hydroxybutanoic Acid; Sodium Oxybate; and Sodium Oxybutyrate.

(e) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers:

(1) Fenethylline;

(2) N-ethylamphetamine;

(3) Aminorex; aminoxaphen; 2-amino-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline; or 4,5-dihydro-5-phenyl-2-oxazolamine;

(4) Cathinone; 2-amino-1-phenyl-1-propanone; alpha-aminopropiophenone; 2-aminopropiophenone; and norephedrone;

(5) Methcathinone, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers. Some other names: 2-(methylamino)-propiophenone; alpha-(methylamino)propiophenone; 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-one; alpha-N-methylaminopropiophenone; methylcathinone; monomethylpropion; ephedrone; N-methylcathinone; AL-464; AL-422; AL-463; and UR1432;

(6) (+/-)cis-4-methylaminorex; and (+/-)cis-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolamine;

(7) N,N-dimethylamphetamine; N,N-alpha-trimethyl-benzeneethanamine; and N,N-alpha-trimethylphenethylamine; and

(8) Benzylpiperazine, 1-benzylpiperazine.

(f) Any controlled substance analogue to the extent intended for human consumption.

Schedule II

(a) Any of the following substances except those narcotic drugs listed in other schedules whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

(1) Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate, excluding apomorphine, buprenorphine, thebaine-derived butorphanol, dextrorphan, nalbuphine, nalmefene, naloxone, and naltrexone and their salts, but including the following:

(A) Raw opium;

(B) Opium extracts;

(C) Opium fluid;

(D) Powdered opium;

(E) Granulated opium;

(F) Tincture of opium;

(G) Codeine;

(H) Ethylmorphine;

(I) Etorphine hydrochloride;

(J) Hydrocodone;

(K) Hydromorphone;

(L) Metopon;

(M) Morphine;

(N) Oxycodone;

(O) Oxymorphone;

(P) Oripavine;

(Q) Thebaine; and

(R) Dihydroetorphine;

(2) Any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent to or identical with any of the substances referred to in subdivision (1) of this subdivision, except that these substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium;

(3) Opium poppy and poppy straw;

(4) Coca leaves and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent to or identical with any of these substances, including cocaine and its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers, except that the substances shall not include decocainized coca leaves or extractions which do not contain cocaine or ecgonine; and

(5) Concentrate of poppy straw, the crude extract of poppy straw in either liquid, solid, or powder form which contains the phenanthrene alkaloids of the opium poppy.

(b) Unless specifically excepted or unless in another schedule any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of their isomers, esters, and ethers whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation, dextrorphan excepted:

(1) Alphaprodine;

(2) Anileridine;

(3) Bezitramide;

(4) Diphenoxylate;

(5) Fentanyl;

(6) Isomethadone;

(7) Levomethorphan;

(8) Levorphanol;

(9) Metazocine;

(10) Methadone;

(11) Methadone-intermediate, 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl butane;

(12) Moramide-intermediate, 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1,1-diphenylpropane-carboxylic acid;

(13) Pethidine or meperidine;

(14) Pethidine-Intermediate-A, 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine;

(15) Pethidine-Intermediate-B, ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate;

(16) Pethidine-Intermediate-C, 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid;

(17) Phenazocine;

(18) Piminodine;

(19) Racemethorphan;

(20) Racemorphan;

(21) Dihydrocodeine;

(22) Bulk Propoxyphene in nondosage forms;

(23) Sufentanil;

(24) Alfentanil;

(25) Levo-alphacetylmethadol which is also known as levo-alpha-acetylmethadol, levomethadyl acetate, and LAAM;

(26) Carfentanil;

(27) Remifentanil; and

(28) Tapentadol.

(c) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a potential for abuse associated with a stimulant effect on the central nervous system:

(1) Amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers;

(2) Phenmetrazine and its salts;

(3) Methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers; and

(4) Methylphenidate.

(d) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a potential for abuse associated with a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designations:

(1) Amobarbital;

(2) Secobarbital;

(3) Pentobarbital;

(4) Phencyclidine; and

(5) Glutethimide.

(e) Hallucinogenic substances known as:

(1) Nabilone. Another name for nabilone: (+/-)-trans-3-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)- 6,6a,7,8,10,10a-Hexahydro-1-hydroxy-6,6-dimethyl-9H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-9-one.

(f) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances:

(1) Immediate precursor to amphetamine and methamphetamine: Phenylacetone. Trade and other names shall include, but are not limited to: Phenyl-2-propanone; P2P; benzyl methyl ketone; and methyl benzyl ketone; or

(2) Immediate precursors to phencyclidine, PCP:

(A) 1-phenylcyclohexylamine; or

(B) 1-piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile, PCC.

Schedule III

(a) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a potential for abuse associated with a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including their salts, isomers, whether optical, position, or geometric, and salts of such isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) Benzphetamine;

(2) Chlorphentermine;

(3) Clortermine; and

(4) Phendimetrazine.

(b) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a potential for abuse associated with a depressant effect on the central nervous system:

(1) Any substance which contains any quantity of a derivative of barbituric acid or any salt of a derivative of barbituric acid, except those substances which are specifically listed in other schedules of this section;

(2) Chlorhexadol;

(3) Lysergic acid;

(4) Lysergic acid amide;

(5) Methyprylon;

(6) Sulfondiethylmethane;

(7) Sulfonethylmethane;

(8) Sulfonmethane;

(9) Nalorphine;

(10) Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing amobarbital, secobarbital, pentobarbital, or any salt thereof and one or more other active medicinal ingredients which are not listed in any schedule;

(11) Any suppository dosage form containing amobarbital, secobarbital, pentobarbital, or any salt of any of these drugs and approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration for marketing only as a suppository;

(12) Any drug product containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, for which an application is approved under section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. 355, as such section existed on January 1, 2014;

(13) Ketamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers. Some other names for ketamine: (+/-)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone; and

(14) Tiletamine and zolazepam or any salt thereof. Trade or other names for a tiletamine-zolazepam combination product shall include, but are not limited to: telazol. Trade or other names for tiletamine shall include, but are not limited to: 2-(ethylamino)-2-(2-thienyl)-cyclohexanone. Trade or other names for zolazepam shall include, but are not limited to: 4-(2-fluorophenyl)-6,8-dihydro-1,3,8-trimethylpyrazolo-(3,4-e) (1,4)-diazepin-7(1H)-one, and flupyrazapon.

(c) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule:

(1) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, or any salts calculated as the free anhydrous base or alkaloid, in limited quantities as set forth below:

(A) Not more than one and eight-tenths grams of codeine per one hundred milliliters or not more than ninety milligrams per dosage unit, with an equal or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium;

(B) Not more than one and eight-tenths grams of codeine per one hundred milliliters or not more than ninety milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(C) Not more than three hundred milligrams of dihydrocodeinone which is also known as hydrocodone per one hundred milliliters or not more than fifteen milligrams per dosage unit, with a fourfold or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium;

(D) Not more than three hundred milligrams of dihydrocodeinone which is also known as hydrocodone per one hundred milliliters or not more than fifteen milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(E) Not more than one and eight-tenths grams of dihydrocodeine per one hundred milliliters or not more than ninety milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(F) Not more than three hundred milligrams of ethylmorphine per one hundred milliliters or not more than fifteen milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(G) Not more than five hundred milligrams of opium per one hundred milliliters or per one hundred grams, or not more than twenty-five milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts; and

(H) Not more than fifty milligrams of morphine per one hundred milliliters or per one hundred grams with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts; and

(2) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following narcotic drug or its salts, as set forth below:

(A) Buprenorphine.

(d) Unless contained on the administration's list of exempt anabolic steroids as the list existed on January 1, 2014, any anabolic steroid, which shall include any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any quantity of the following substances, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) Boldenone;

(2) Boldione;

(3) Chlorotestosterone (4-chlortestosterone);

(4) Clostebol;

(5) Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone;

(6) Desoxymethyltestosterone;

(7) Dihydrotestosterone (4-dihydrotestosterone);

(8) Drostanolone;

(9) Ethylestrenol;

(10) Fluoxymesterone;

(11) Formebulone (formebolone);

(12) Mesterolone;

(13) Methandienone;

(14) Methandranone;

(15) Methandriol;

(16) Methandrostenolone;

(17) Methenolone;

(18) Methyltestosterone;

(19) Mibolerone;

(20) Nandrolone;

(21) Norethandrolone;

(22) Oxandrolone;

(23) Oxymesterone;

(24) Oxymetholone;

(25) Stanolone;

(26) Stanozolol;

(27) Testolactone;

(28) Testosterone;

(29) Trenbolone;

(30) 19-nor-4,9(10)-androstadienedione; and

(31) Any salt, ester, or ether of a drug or substance described or listed in this subdivision if the salt, ester, or ether promotes muscle growth.

(e) Hallucinogenic substances known as:

(1) Dronabinol, synthetic, in sesame oil and encapsulated in a soft gelatin capsule in a drug product approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration. Some other names for dronabinol are (6aR-trans)-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo (b,d)pyran-1-ol or (-)-delta-9-(trans)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

Schedule IV

(a) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, including their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) Barbital;

(2) Chloral betaine;

(3) Chloral hydrate;

(4) Chlordiazepoxide, but not including librax (chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and clindinium bromide) or menrium (chlordiazepoxide and water soluble esterified estrogens);

(5) Clonazepam;

(6) Clorazepate;

(7) Diazepam;

(8) Ethchlorvynol;

(9) Ethinamate;

(10) Flurazepam;

(11) Mebutamate;

(12) Meprobamate;

(13) Methohexital;

(14) Methylphenobarbital;

(15) Oxazepam;

(16) Paraldehyde;

(17) Petrichloral;

(18) Phenobarbital;

(19) Prazepam;

(20) Alprazolam;

(21) Bromazepam;

(22) Camazepam;

(23) Clobazam;

(24) Clotiazepam;

(25) Cloxazolam;

(26) Delorazepam;

(27) Estazolam;

(28) Ethyl loflazepate;

(29) Fludiazepam;

(30) Flunitrazepam;

(31) Halazepam;

(32) Haloxazolam;

(33) Ketazolam;

(34) Loprazolam;

(35) Lorazepam;

(36) Lormetazepam;

(37) Medazepam;

(38) Nimetazepam;

(39) Nitrazepam;

(40) Nordiazepam;

(41) Oxazolam;

(42) Pinazepam;

(43) Temazepam;

(44) Tetrazepam;

(45) Triazolam;

(46) Midazolam;

(47) Quazepam;

(48) Zolpidem;

(49) Dichloralphenazone; and

(50) Zaleplon.

(b) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substance, including its salts, isomers, whether optical, position, or geometric, and salts of such isomers, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible: Fenfluramine.

(c) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including their salts, isomers, whether optical, position, or geometric, and salts of such isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) Diethylpropion;

(2) Phentermine;

(3) Pemoline, including organometallic complexes and chelates thereof;

(4) Mazindol;

(5) Pipradrol;

(6) SPA, ((-)-1-dimethylamino- 1,2-diphenylethane);

(7) Cathine. Another name for cathine is ((+)-norpseudoephedrine);

(8) Fencamfamin;

(9) Fenproporex;

(10) Mefenorex;

(11) Modafinil; and

(12) Sibutramine.

(d) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following narcotic drugs, or their salts or isomers calculated as the free anhydrous base or alkaloid, in limited quantities as set forth below:

(1) Propoxyphene in manufactured dosage forms; and

(2) Not more than one milligram of difenoxin and not less than twenty-five micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

(e) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substance, including its salts: Pentazocine.

(f) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substance, including its salts, isomers, and salts of such isomers: Butorphanol.

(g) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substance, including its salts, isomers, and salts of such isomers: Carisoprodol.

(h)(1) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substance, including its salts, optical isomers, and salts of such optical isomers: Ephedrine.

(2) The following drug products containing ephedrine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of such optical isomers, are excepted from subdivision (h)(1) of Schedule IV if they (A) are stored behind a counter, in an area not accessible to customers, or in a locked case so that a customer needs assistance from an employee to access the drug product; (B) are sold by a person, eighteen years of age or older, in the course of his or her employment to a customer eighteen years of age or older with the following restrictions: No customer shall be allowed to purchase, receive, or otherwise acquire more than three and six-tenths grams of ephedrine base during a twenty-four-hour period; no customer shall purchase, receive, or otherwise acquire more than nine grams of ephedrine base during a thirty-day period; and the customer shall display a valid driver's or operator's license, a Nebraska state identification card, a military identification card, an alien registration card, or a passport as proof of identification; (C) are labeled and marketed in a manner consistent with the pertinent OTC Tentative Final or Final Monograph; (D) are manufactured and distributed for legitimate medicinal use in a manner that reduces or eliminates the likelihood of abuse; and (E) are not marketed, advertised, or represented in any manner for the indication of stimulation, mental alertness, euphoria, ecstasy, a buzz or high, heightened sexual performance, or increased muscle mass:

(i) Primatene Tablets; and

(ii) Bronkaid Dual Action Caplets.

Schedule V

(a) Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following limited quantities of narcotic drugs or salts calculated as the free anhydrous base or alkaloid, which shall include one or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic drug alone:

(1) Not more than two hundred milligrams of codeine per one hundred milliliters or per one hundred grams;

(2) Not more than one hundred milligrams of dihydrocodeine per one hundred milliliters or per one hundred grams;

(3) Not more than one hundred milligrams of ethylmorphine per one hundred milliliters or per one hundred grams;

(4) Not more than two and five-tenths milligrams of diphenoxylate and not less than twenty-five micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit;

(5) Not more than one hundred milligrams of opium per one hundred milliliters or per one hundred grams; and

(6) Not more than five-tenths milligram of difenoxin and not less than twenty-five micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

(b) Unless specifically exempted or excluded or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers: Pyrovalerone.

(c) Unless specifically exempted or excluded or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers:

(1) Ezogabine (N-(2-amino-4-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-phenyl)-carbamic acid ethyl ester);

(2) Lacosamide ((R)-2-acetoamido-N-benzyl-3-methoxy-propionamide); and

(3) Pregabalin ((S)-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid).

Source

      Laws 1977, LB 38, § 65; 

      Laws 1978, LB 748, § 50; 

      Laws 1980, LB 696, § 2; 

      Laws 1985, LB 323, § 2; 

      Laws 1985, LB 406, § 3; 

      Laws 1986, LB 1160, § 1; 

      Laws 1987, LB 473, § 1; 

      Laws 1990, LB 571, § 6; 

      Laws 1992, LB 1019, § 32; 

      Laws 1994, LB 1210, § 3; 

      Laws 1995, LB 406, § 5; 

      Laws 1996, LB 1213, § 4; 

      Laws 1998, LB 1073, § 8; 

      Laws 1999, LB 594, § 1; 

      Laws 2000, LB 1115, § 2; 

      Laws 2001, LB 113, § 10; 

      Laws 2002, LB 500, § 1; 

      Laws 2003, LB 245, § 1; 

      Laws 2005, LB 382, § 2; 

      Laws 2007, LB247, § 2; 

      Laws 2008, LB902, § 1; 

      Laws 2009, LB123, § 1; 

      Laws 2009, LB151, § 1; 

      Laws 2010, LB792, § 1; 

      Laws 2011, LB19, § 1; 

      Laws 2012, LB670, § 1; 

      Laws 2013, LB298, § 1; 

      Laws 2014, LB811, § 4.

Effective Date: July 18, 2014
28-416
Prohibited acts; violations; penalties

(1) Except as authorized by the Uniform Controlled Substances Act, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally: (a) To manufacture, distribute, deliver, dispense, or possess with intent to manufacture, distribute, deliver, or dispense a controlled substance; or (b) to create, distribute, or possess with intent to distribute a counterfeit controlled substance.

(2) Except as provided in subsections (4), (5), (7), (8), (9), and (10) of this section, any person who violates subsection (1) of this section with respect to: (a) A controlled substance classified in Schedule I, II, or III of section 28-405 which is an exceptionally hazardous drug shall be guilty of a Class II felony; (b) any other controlled substance classified in Schedule I, II, or III of section 28-405 shall be guilty of a Class III felony; or (c) a controlled substance classified in Schedule IV or V of section 28-405 shall be guilty of a Class IIIA felony.

(3) A person knowingly or intentionally possessing a controlled substance, except marijuana or any substance containing a quantifiable amount of the substances, chemicals, or compounds described, defined, or delineated in subdivision (c)(25) of Schedule I of section 28-405, unless such substance was obtained directly or pursuant to a medical order issued by a practitioner authorized to prescribe while acting in the course of his or her professional practice, or except as otherwise authorized by the act, shall be guilty of a Class IV felony.

(4)(a) Except as authorized by the Uniform Controlled Substances Act, any person eighteen years of age or older who knowingly or intentionally manufactures, distributes, delivers, dispenses, or possesses with intent to manufacture, distribute, deliver, or dispense a controlled substance or a counterfeit controlled substance (i) to a person under the age of eighteen years, (ii) in, on, or within one thousand feet of the real property comprising a public or private elementary, vocational, or secondary school, a community college, a public or private college, junior college, or university, or a playground, or (iii) within one hundred feet of a public or private youth center, public swimming pool, or video arcade facility shall be punished by the next higher penalty classification than the penalty prescribed in subsection (2), (7), (8), (9), or (10) of this section, depending upon the controlled substance involved, for the first violation and for a second or subsequent violation shall be punished by the next higher penalty classification than that prescribed for a first violation of this subsection, but in no event shall such person be punished by a penalty greater than a Class IB felony.

(b) For purposes of this subsection:

(i) Playground shall mean any outdoor facility, including any parking lot appurtenant to the facility, intended for recreation, open to the public, and with any portion containing three or more apparatus intended for the recreation of children, including sliding boards, swingsets, and teeterboards;

(ii) Video arcade facility shall mean any facility legally accessible to persons under eighteen years of age, intended primarily for the use of pinball and video machines for amusement, and containing a minimum of ten pinball or video machines; and

(iii) Youth center shall mean any recreational facility or gymnasium, including any parking lot appurtenant to the facility or gymnasium, intended primarily for use by persons under eighteen years of age which regularly provides athletic, civic, or cultural activities.

(5)(a) Except as authorized by the Uniform Controlled Substances Act, it shall be unlawful for any person eighteen years of age or older to knowingly and intentionally employ, hire, use, cause, persuade, coax, induce, entice, seduce, or coerce any person under the age of eighteen years to manufacture, transport, distribute, carry, deliver, dispense, prepare for delivery, offer for delivery, or possess with intent to do the same a controlled substance or a counterfeit controlled substance.

(b) Except as authorized by the Uniform Controlled Substances Act, it shall be unlawful for any person eighteen years of age or older to knowingly and intentionally employ, hire, use, cause, persuade, coax, induce, entice, seduce, or coerce any person under the age of eighteen years to aid and abet any person in the manufacture, transportation, distribution, carrying, delivery, dispensing, preparation for delivery, offering for delivery, or possession with intent to do the same of a controlled substance or a counterfeit controlled substance.

(c) Any person who violates subdivision (a) or (b) of this subsection shall be punished by the next higher penalty classification than the penalty prescribed in subsection (2), (7), (8), (9), or (10) of this section, depending upon the controlled substance involved, for the first violation and for a second or subsequent violation shall be punished by the next higher penalty classification than that prescribed for a first violation of this subsection, but in no event shall such person be punished by a penalty greater than a Class IB felony.

(6) It shall not be a defense to prosecution for violation of subsection (4) or (5) of this section that the defendant did not know the age of the person through whom the defendant violated such subsection.

(7) Any person who violates subsection (1) of this section with respect to cocaine or any mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of cocaine in a quantity of:

(a) One hundred forty grams or more shall be guilty of a Class IB felony;

(b) At least twenty-eight grams but less than one hundred forty grams shall be guilty of a Class IC felony; or

(c) At least ten grams but less than twenty-eight grams shall be guilty of a Class ID felony.

(8) Any person who violates subsection (1) of this section with respect to base cocaine (crack) or any mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of base cocaine in a quantity of:

(a) One hundred forty grams or more shall be guilty of a Class IB felony;

(b) At least twenty-eight grams but less than one hundred forty grams shall be guilty of a Class IC felony; or

(c) At least ten grams but less than twenty-eight grams shall be guilty of a Class ID felony.

(9) Any person who violates subsection (1) of this section with respect to heroin or any mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin in a quantity of:

(a) One hundred forty grams or more shall be guilty of a Class IB felony;

(b) At least twenty-eight grams but less than one hundred forty grams shall be guilty of a Class IC felony; or

(c) At least ten grams but less than twenty-eight grams shall be guilty of a Class ID felony.

(10) Any person who violates subsection (1) of this section with respect to amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its isomers, or with respect to methamphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its isomers, in a quantity of:

(a) One hundred forty grams or more shall be guilty of a Class IB felony;

(b) At least twenty-eight grams but less than one hundred forty grams shall be guilty of a Class IC felony; or

(c) At least ten grams but less than twenty-eight grams shall be guilty of a Class ID felony.

(11) Any person knowingly or intentionally possessing marijuana weighing more than one ounce but not more than one pound shall be guilty of a Class III misdemeanor.

(12) Any person knowingly or intentionally possessing marijuana weighing more than one pound shall be guilty of a Class IV felony.

(13) Any person knowingly or intentionally possessing marijuana weighing one ounce or less or any substance containing a quantifiable amount of the substances, chemicals, or compounds described, defined, or delineated in subdivision (c)(25) of Schedule I of section 28-405 shall:

(a) For the first offense, be guilty of an infraction, receive a citation, be fined three hundred dollars, and be assigned to attend a course as prescribed in section 29-433 if the judge determines that attending such course is in the best interest of the individual defendant;

(b) For the second offense, be guilty of a Class IV misdemeanor, receive a citation, and be fined four hundred dollars and may be imprisoned not to exceed five days; and

(c) For the third and all subsequent offenses, be guilty of a Class IIIA misdemeanor, receive a citation, be fined five hundred dollars, and be imprisoned not to exceed seven days.

(14) Any person convicted of violating this section, if placed on probation, shall, as a condition of probation, satisfactorily attend and complete appropriate treatment and counseling on drug abuse provided by a program authorized under the Nebraska Behavioral Health Services Act or other licensed drug treatment facility.

(15) Any person convicted of violating this section, if sentenced to the Department of Correctional Services, shall attend appropriate treatment and counseling on drug abuse.

(16) Any person knowingly or intentionally possessing a firearm while in violation of subsection (1) of this section shall be punished by the next higher penalty classification than the penalty prescribed in subsection (2), (7), (8), (9), or (10) of this section, but in no event shall such person be punished by a penalty greater than a Class IB felony.

(17) A person knowingly or intentionally in possession of money used or intended to be used to facilitate a violation of subsection (1) of this section shall be guilty of a Class IV felony.

(18) In addition to the penalties provided in this section:

(a) If the person convicted or adjudicated of violating this section is eighteen years of age or younger and has one or more licenses or permits issued under the Motor Vehicle Operator's License Act:

(i) For the first offense, the court may, as a part of the judgment of conviction or adjudication, (A) impound any such licenses or permits for thirty days and (B) require such person to attend a drug education class;

(ii) For a second offense, the court may, as a part of the judgment of conviction or adjudication, (A) impound any such licenses or permits for ninety days and (B) require such person to complete no fewer than twenty and no more than forty hours of community service and to attend a drug education class; and

(iii) For a third or subsequent offense, the court may, as a part of the judgment of conviction or adjudication, (A) impound any such licenses or permits for twelve months and (B) require such person to complete no fewer than sixty hours of community service, to attend a drug education class, and to submit to a drug assessment by a licensed alcohol and drug counselor; and

(b) If the person convicted or adjudicated of violating this section is eighteen years of age or younger and does not have a permit or license issued under the Motor Vehicle Operator's License Act:

(i) For the first offense, the court may, as part of the judgment of conviction or adjudication, (A) prohibit such person from obtaining any permit or any license pursuant to the act for which such person would otherwise be eligible until thirty days after the date of such order and (B) require such person to attend a drug education class;

(ii) For a second offense, the court may, as part of the judgment of conviction or adjudication, (A) prohibit such person from obtaining any permit or any license pursuant to the act for which such person would otherwise be eligible until ninety days after the date of such order and (B) require such person to complete no fewer than twenty hours and no more than forty hours of community service and to attend a drug education class; and

(iii) For a third or subsequent offense, the court may, as part of the judgment of conviction or adjudication, (A) prohibit such person from obtaining any permit or any license pursuant to the act for which such person would otherwise be eligible until twelve months after the date of such order and (B) require such person to complete no fewer than sixty hours of community service, to attend a drug education class, and to submit to a drug assessment by a licensed alcohol and drug counselor.

A copy of an abstract of the court's conviction or adjudication shall be transmitted to the Director of Motor Vehicles pursuant to sections 60-497.01 to 60-497.04 if a license or permit is impounded or a juvenile is prohibited from obtaining a license or permit under this subsection.

Source

      Laws 1977, LB 38, § 76; 
      Laws 1978, LB 808, § 2; 
      Laws 1980, LB 696, § 3; 
      Laws 1985, LB 406, § 4; 
      Laws 1986, LB 504, § 1; 
      Laws 1989, LB 592, § 2; 
      Laws 1991, LB 742, § 1; 
      Laws 1993, LB 117, § 2; 
      Laws 1995, LB 371, § 6; 
      Laws 1997, LB 364, § 8; 
      Laws 1999, LB 299, § 1; 
      Laws 2001, LB 398, § 14; 
      Laws 2003, LB 46, § 1; 
      Laws 2004, LB 1083, § 86; 
      Laws 2005, LB 117, § 3; 
      Laws 2008, LB844, § 1; 
      Laws 2010, LB800, § 4; 
      Laws 2011, LB19, § 2; 
      Laws 2011, LB463, § 1; 
      Laws 2013, LB298, § 2.

Cross References

      Motor Vehicle Operator's License Act, see section 60-462.
      Nebraska Behavioral Health Services Act, see section 71-801.

Annotations

1. Elements

2. Evidence

3. Generally

4. Jury instruction

5. Plain view doctrine

6. Possession

7. Possession with intent to deliver

8. Sentencing

1. Elements

Subsection (5)(a) of this section requires the State to prove that the defendant is someone (1) who is 18 years of age or older and (2) who knowingly and intentionally (a) used a person under 18 years of age in one of the ways listed (b) to perform one of the listed acts related to drug distribution. State v. Reinhart, 283 Neb. 710, 811 N.W.2d 258 (2012).

Unless a statute specifically provides otherwise, the quantity possessed of a controlled substance is not an essential element of the crime. State v. Thompson, 244 Neb. 189, 505 N.W.2d 673 (1993).

The weight or amount of marijuana possessed is not an element of the substantive offense of possession of marijuana, and the weight or amount of marijuana only determines the grade of the offense and relates to the punishment which may be imposed on conviction for the offense of simple possession. Simple possession of marijuana is a lesser-included offense of possession of marijuana with intent to distribute. State v. Malone, 4 Neb. App. 904, 552 N.W.2d 772 (1996).

2. Evidence
A passenger's mere presence in a vehicle with contraband is insufficient to support a finding of joint possession. State v. Draganescu, 276 Neb. 448, 755 N.W.2d 57 (2008).

Generally, a passenger's joint possession of a controlled substance found in a vehicle can be established by evidence that (1) supports an inference that the driver was involved in drug trafficking, as distinguished from possessing illegal drugs for personal use; (2) shows the passenger acted suspiciously during a traffic stop; and (3) shows the passenger was not a casual occupant but someone who had been traveling a considerable distance with the driver. State v. Draganescu, 276 Neb. 448, 755 N.W.2d 57 (2008).

Evidence which was seized during a search based solely on an illegal wiretap must be suppressed and a conviction based on that evidence reversed, where it was agreed that the defendant had waived his rights under the fourth amendment to the U.S. Constitution, but had not waived his rights under section 86-701 et seq. (recodified in 2002 as section 86-271 et seq.). State v. Aulrich, 209 Neb. 546, 308 N.W.2d 739 (1981).

3. Generally
A juror may reasonably infer that a driver with a possessory interest in a vehicle who is transporting a large quantity of illegal drugs would not invite someone into his or her vehicle who had no knowledge of the driver's drug activities. State v. Draganescu, 276 Neb. 448, 755 N.W.2d 57 (2008).

Subsection (6) of this section and section 77-4301(2) address different types of misconduct and are not inconsistent. State v. Garza, 242 Neb. 573, 496 N.W.2d 448 (1993).

A party claiming that the sale of a controlled substance was exempt has the burden of proof that an exemption was applicable. State v. Taylor, 221 Neb. 114, 375 N.W.2d 610 (1985).

Subsection (6)(a) merely authorizes the issuance of a citation for certain violations; it does not prohibit an arrest for the same violation when otherwise authorized by law. State v. Watts, 209 Neb. 371, 307 N.W.2d 816 (1981).

4. Jury instruction
The statutory elements neither solely control nor exclusively dictate whether a lesser-included offense instruction for simple possession is required along with an instruction on possession of a controlled substance with intent to deliver. State v. Massa, 242 Neb. 70, 493 N.W.2d 175 (1992).

5. Plain view doctrine
Plain view doctrine circumvents need for a search warrant when contraband is inadvertently found while arresting officer is legally present at physical examination of accused. State v. Brockman, 231 Neb. 982, 439 N.W.2d 84 (1989).

6. Possession
Constructive possession of an illegal substance may be proved by direct or circumstantial evidence. State v. Draganescu, 276 Neb. 448, 755 N.W.2d 57 (2008).

Possession of a controlled substance is a lesser-included offense of distribution of the controlled substance. State v. Draganescu, 276 Neb. 448, 755 N.W.2d 57 (2008).

Possession of an illegal substance can be inferred from a vehicle passenger's proximity to the substance or other circumstantial evidence that affirmatively links the passenger to the substance. State v. Draganescu, 276 Neb. 448, 755 N.W.2d 57 (2008).

Under subsection (1) of this section, a defendant possesses a controlled substance when the defendant knows of the nature or character of the substance and its presence and has dominion or control over the substance. State v. Lonnecker, 237 Neb. 207, 465 N.W.2d 737 (1991).

Under subsection (1) of this section, a defendant's control or dominion over premises where a controlled substance is located may establish the defendant's constructive possession of the controlled substance. State v. Lonnecker, 237 Neb. 207, 465 N.W.2d 737 (1991).

Pursuant to subsection (3) of this section, there is sufficient evidence to convict the defendant of knowingly or intentionally possessing a controlled substance when he approaches an undercover officer, asks to buy drugs, physically examines the drugs, and then hands over money to pay for the drugs. State v. Clark, 236 Neb. 475, 461 N.W.2d 576 (1990).

7. Possession with intent to deliver
Circumstantial evidence may support a finding that a defendant intended to distribute, deliver, or dispense a controlled substance. State v. Draganescu, 276 Neb. 448, 755 N.W.2d 57 (2008).

Circumstantial evidence to establish possession of a controlled substance with intent to distribute or deliver may consist of several factors: the quantity of the substance, the equipment and supplies found with it, the place it was found, the manner of packaging, and the testimony of witnesses experienced and knowledgeable in the field. State v. Draganescu, 276 Neb. 448, 755 N.W.2d 57 (2008).

Evidence of the quantity of a controlled substance possessed combined with expert testimony that such quantity indicates an intent to deliver can be sufficient for a jury to infer an intent to deliver. State v. Draganescu, 276 Neb. 448, 755 N.W.2d 57 (2008).

When a defendant did not dispute the State's evidence on the separate element of intent to deliver, he was not entitled to an instruction on the lesser-included offense of simple possession. State v. Draganescu, 276 Neb. 448, 755 N.W.2d 57 (2008).

Conviction of possession with intent to deliver a controlled substance affirmed in case where police officers noticed defendant in bar making a furtive gesture by pulling both hands from underneath bar; the officers subsequently found a bag with 11 snow seals behind the carpet under the bar within arm's distance from defendant; and defendant could not adequately account for the money he had in his possession. State v. Alcorn, 240 Neb. 400, 481 N.W.2d 921 (1992).

Possession with intent to deliver a controlled substance is not a victimless crime. State v. Rodgers, 237 Neb. 506, 466 N.W.2d 537 (1991).

8. Sentencing
Sentence of 3 to 5 years' imprisonment was not excessive for conviction under subsection (1)(a) of this statute. State v. Hodge and Carpenter, 225 Neb. 94, 402 N.W.2d 867 (1987).
28-417
Unlawful acts; violations; penalty

(1) It shall be unlawful for any person:

(a) To omit, remove, alter, or obliterate a symbol required by the federal Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq., as the act existed on September 1, 2001, or required by the laws of this state;

(b) To alter, deface, or remove any label affixed to a package of narcotic drugs;

(c) To refuse or fail to make, keep, or furnish any record, notification, order form, statement, invoice, or information required under the Uniform Controlled Substances Act;

(d) To refuse any entry into any premises for inspection authorized by the act;

(e) To keep or maintain any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling house, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft, or place whatever which such person knows or should know is resorted to by persons using controlled substances in violation of the Uniform Controlled Substances Act for the purpose of using such substances or which is used for the keeping or selling of the same in violation of the act;

(f) To whom or for whose use any controlled substance has been prescribed, sold, or dispensed by a practitioner or the owner of any animal for which any such substance has been prescribed, sold, or dispensed by a veterinarian to possess it in a container other than which it was delivered to him or her by the practitioner; or

(g) To be under the influence of any controlled substance for a purpose other than the treatment of a sickness or injury as prescribed or administered by a practitioner. In a prosecution under this subdivision, it shall not be necessary for the state to prove that the accused was under the influence of any specific controlled substance, but it shall be sufficient for a conviction under this subdivision for the state to prove that the accused was under the influence of some controlled substance by proving that the accused did manifest physical and physiological symptoms or reactions caused by the use of any controlled substance.

(2) Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a Class III misdemeanor.

Source

      Laws 1977, LB 38, § 77; 
      Laws 1978, LB 920, § 1; 
      Laws 1988, LB 273, § 7; 
      Laws 2001, LB 113, § 11; 
      Laws 2001, LB 398, § 15. 
28-418
Intentional violations; penalty

(1) It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally:

(a) Who is a registrant to distribute a controlled substance classified in Schedule I or II of section 28-405 in the course of his or her legitimate business except in compliance with section 28-413;

(b) To use in the course of the manufacture or distribution of a controlled substance a registration number which is fictitious, revoked, suspended, or issued to another person;

(c) To acquire or obtain or to attempt to acquire or obtain possession of a controlled substance by theft, misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception, or subterfuge;

(d) To furnish false or fraudulent material information in or omit any material information from any application, report, or other document required to be kept or filed under the Uniform Controlled Substances Act or any record required to be kept by the act;

(e) To make, distribute, or possess any punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling thereof so as to render such drug a counterfeit controlled substance;

(f) Who is subject to sections 28-406 to 28-414.05 to distribute or dispense a controlled substance in violation of sections 28-414 to 28-414.05;

(g) Who is a registrant to manufacture a controlled substance not authorized by his or her registration or to distribute or dispense a controlled substance not authorized by his or her registration to another registrant or authorized person;

(h) To possess a false or forged medical order for a controlled substance issued by a practitioner authorized to prescribe, except that this subdivision shall not apply to law enforcement officials, practitioners, or attorneys in the performance of their official lawful duties; or

(i) To communicate information to a practitioner in an effort to unlawfully procure a controlled substance, the administration of a controlled substance, or a medical order for a controlled substance issued by a practitioner authorized to prescribe.

(2) Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a Class IV felony.

Source

      Laws 1977, LB 38, § 78; 
      Laws 1988, LB 273, § 8; 
      Laws 2001, LB 113, § 12; 
      Laws 2001, LB 398, § 16; 
      Laws 2014, LB811, § 15.

Effective Date: July 18, 2014
28-419
Inhaling or drinking certain intoxicating substances; unlawful

No person shall breathe, inhale, or drink any compound, liquid, or chemical containing acetate, acetone, benzene, butyl alcohol, cyclohexanone, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol, ethylene dichloride, ethylene trichloride, hexane, isopropanol, isopropyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, methyl cellosolve acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, pentachlorophenol, petroleum ether, toluene, toluol, trichloroathane, trichloroethylene, or any other substance for the purpose of inducing a condition of intoxication, stupefaction, depression, giddiness, paralysis, inebriation, excitement, or irrational behavior, or in any manner changing, distorting, or disturbing the auditory, visual, mental, or nervous processes. For the purposes of sections 28-419 to 28-424, any such condition so induced shall be deemed an intoxicated condition.

Source

      Laws 1977, LB 38, § 79; 
      Laws 2007, LB424, § 1.
28-420
Selling or offering for sale certain compounds; use; knowledge of seller; unlawful

No person shall knowingly sell or offer for sale, deliver or give to any person any compound, liquid or chemical or any other substance which will induce an intoxicated condition as defined in section 28-419, when the seller, offerer or deliverer knows or has reason to know that such compound is intended for use to induce such condition.

Source

      Laws 1977, LB 38, § 80. 
28-428
Controlled premises, defined; inspection; procedure

(1) Administrative inspections of controlled premises are authorized in accordance with the following provisions:

(a) For purposes of the Uniform Controlled Substances Act only, controlled premises shall mean: (i) Places where persons registered or exempted from registration requirements under the act are required to keep records; and (ii) places including factories, warehouses, establishments, and conveyances where persons registered or exempted from registration requirements under the act are permitted to hold, manufacture, compound, process, sell, deliver, or otherwise dispose of any controlled substance;

(b) When so authorized by an administrative inspection or an officer of the Division of Drug Control or an authorized agent of the department, upon presenting the warrant and appropriate credentials to the owner, operator, or agent in charge, shall have the right to enter controlled premises for the purpose of conducting an administrative inspection;

(c) When so authorized by an administrative inspection warrant, an officer of the Division of Drug Control or an authorized agent of the department shall have the right: (i) To inspect and copy records required by the act to be kept; (ii) to inspect, within reasonable limits and in a reasonable manner, controlled premises and all pertinent equipment, finished and unfinished material, containers, and labeling found therein, and, except as otherwise provided in subdivision (1)(e)(ii) of this section, all other things therein, including records, files, papers, processes, controls, and facilities, bearing on any violation of the act; and (iii) to inventory any stock of any controlled substance therein and obtain samples of any such substance;

(d) This section shall not be construed to prevent entries and administrative inspections including seizures of property without a warrant: (i) With the consent of the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the controlled premises; (ii) in situations presenting imminent danger to health or safety; (iii) in situations involving inspection of any conveyance when there is reasonable cause to believe that such conveyance contains substances possessed or carried in violation of the act; (iv) in any other exceptional or emergency circumstance when time or opportunity to apply for a warrant is lacking; and (v) in all other situations when a warrant is not constitutionally required; and

(e) Except when the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the controlled premises so consents in writing, no inspection authorized by this section shall extend to (i) financial data; (ii) sales data other than shipment data; or (iii) pricing data.

(2) For the purpose of the execution of administrative inspection warrants, an authorized agent of the department shall be deemed to be a peace officer.

(3) Issuance and execution of administrative inspection warrants for controlled premises shall be in accordance with the provisions of sections 29-830 to 29-835, except that inspection warrants for the purpose of the act shall be issued not only upon a showing that consent to entry for inspection purposes has been refused, but also in all cases when the judge of a court of record has been given reason to believe that consent would be refused if requested.

Source

      Laws 1977, LB 38, § 88; 
      Laws 1997, LB 307, § 9. 
28-439
Drug paraphernalia, defined; enumerated

As used in sections 28-101, 28-431, and 28-439 to 28-444, unless the context otherwise requires, drug paraphernalia shall mean all equipment, products, and materials of any kind which are used, intended for use, or designed for use, in manufacturing, injecting, ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing into the human body a controlled substance in violation of sections 28-101, 28-431, and 28-439 to 28-444 or the Uniform Controlled Substances Act. It shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

(1) Diluents and adulterants, such as quinine hydrochloride, mannitol, mannite, dextrose, and lactose, used, intended for use, or designed for use in cutting controlled substances;

(2) Separation gins and sifters used, intended for use, or designed for use in removing twigs and seeds from, or in otherwise cleaning or refining, marijuana;

(3) Hypodermic syringes, needles, and other objects used, intended for use, and designed for use in parenterally injecting controlled substances into the human body; and

(4) Objects used, intended for use, or designed for use in ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing marijuana, cocaine, hashish, or hashish oil into the human body, which shall include but not be limited to the following:

(a) Metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic, or ceramic pipes with or without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads, or punctured metal bowls;

(b) Water pipes;

(c) Carburetion tubes and devices;

(d) Smoking and carburetion masks;

(e) Roach clips, meaning objects used to hold burning material, such as a marijuana cigarette, which has become too small or too short to be held in the hand;

(f) Miniature cocaine spoons, and cocaine vials;

(g) Chamber pipes;

(h) Carburetor pipes;

(i) Electric pipes;

(j) Air-driven pipes;

(k) Chillums;

(l) Bongs; and

(m) Ice pipes or chillers.

Source

      Laws 1980, LB 991, § 1. 

Annotations

Neither fourth amendment rights nor privacy rights are implicated in "drug paraphernalia" statutes, and thus, strict scrutiny standard of review is inapplicable to constitutional challenge. Casbah, Inc. v. Thone, 651 F.2d 551 (8th Cir. 1981).

Use of term "designed" does not refer to physical attributes of object but to intent of person charged with violation, and thus does not render statute unconstitutionally vague. List of items exemplary of drug paraphernalia is not vague and overbroad on ground that it includes numerous innocent items, where no item is drug paraphernalia absent requisite intent to use it with controlled substances. Casbah, Inc. v. Thone, 651 F.2d 551 (8th Cir. 1981).
28-440
Drug paraphernalia; determination; factors considered

In determining whether an object is drug paraphernalia, a court or other authority shall consider, in addition to all other logically relevant factors, the following:

(1) Statements by an owner or by anyone in control of the object concerning its use;

(2) Prior convictions, if any, of an owner, or of anyone in control of the object, under any state or federal law relating to any controlled substance;

(3) The proximity of the object, in time and space, to a direct violation of this act;

(4) The proximity of the object to any controlled substance;

(5) The existence of any residue of a controlled substance on the object;

(6) Direct or circumstantial evidence of the intent of an owner, or of anyone in control of the object, to deliver it to any person whom he or she knows, or should reasonably know, intends to use the object to facilitate a violation of sections 28-101, 28-431, and 28-439 to 28-444. The innocence of an owner, or of anyone in control of the object, as to a direct violation of sections 28-101, 28-431, and 28-439 to 28-444 shall not prevent a finding that the object is intended for use, or designed for use as drug paraphernalia;

(7) Instructions, oral or written, provided with the object concerning its use;

(8) Descriptive materials accompanying the object which explain or depict its use;

(9) National and local advertising concerning its use;

(10) The manner in which the object is displayed for sale;

(11) Whether the owner, or anyone in control of the object, is a legitimate supplier of like or related items to the community, such as a licensed distributor or dealer of tobacco products;

(12) Direct or circumstantial evidence of the ratio of sales of the object or objects to the total sales of the business enterprise;

(13) The existence and scope of any legitimate use for the object in the community; and

(14) Expert testimony concerning its use.

Source

      Laws 1980, LB 991, § 2. 

Annotations

The factors listed in this section are used to determine if the objects are actually drug paraphernalia, not whether officer had probable cause to believe they were drug paraphernalia. The list in this section is illustrative, not exclusive. State v. Sassen, 240 Neb. 773, 484 N.W.2d 469 (1992).

List of items exemplary of drug paraphernalia is not unconstitutional on ground that several factors would permit conviction based on transferred intent and guilt by association where, although actions of third parties are relevant in determining paraphernalia, evidence regarding third-party actions is but one step in prosecutorial scheme, and if third-party actions tend to indicate the item is drug paraphernalia, focus of inquiry must necessarily shift to intent of individual involved. Casbah, Inc. v. Thone, 651 F.2d 551 (8th Cir. 1981).

Reference to "other authority" is not unconstitutionally vague since "other authority" certainly refers to law enforcement personnel, and fact that statute attempts to guide such personnel in their enforcement duties lessens, rather than increases, danger of arbitrary enforcement. Casbah, Inc. v. Thone, 651 F.2d 551 (8th Cir. 1981).
28-441
Drug paraphernalia; use or possession; unlawful; penalty

(1) It shall be unlawful for any person to use, or to possess with intent to use, drug paraphernalia to manufacture, inject, ingest, inhale, or otherwise introduce into the human body a controlled substance in violation of sections 28-101, 28-431, and 28-439 to 28-444.

(2) Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of an infraction.

Source

      Laws 1980, LB 991, § 3. 

Annotations

Evidence that defendant invited police to her motel room and let them in, wherein police found two syringes, cigarette papers, and a small plastic spoon in close proximity to cocaine and marijuana, was sufficient to sustain convictions for possession of drug paraphernalia. State v. Garza, 239 Neb. 98, 474 N.W.2d 246 (1991).

Possession of drug paraphernalia is an infraction. State v. Petersen, 12 Neb. App. 445, 676 N.W.2d 65 (2004).

Where statute includes requirement of intent in definition of drug paraphernalia and enumerates factors which officer has to consider in determining whether object is drug paraphernalia, statute does not alter requirement that searches and seizures be based on probable cause and is thus not violative of fourth amendment. Casbah, Inc. v. Thone, 651 F.2d 551 (8th Cir. 1981).
28-442
Drug paraphernalia; deliver or manufacture; unlawful; exception; penalty

(1) It shall be unlawful for any person to deliver, possess with intent to deliver, or manufacture with intent to deliver, drug paraphernalia, knowing, or under circumstances in which one reasonably should know, that it will be used to manufacture, inject, ingest, or inhale or otherwise be used to introduce into the human body a controlled substance in violation of sections 28-101, 28-431, and 28-439 to 28-444.

(2) This section shall not apply to pharmacists who sell hypodermic syringes or needles for the prevention of the spread of infectious diseases.

(3) Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a Class II misdemeanor.

Source

      Laws 1980, LB 991, § 4; 

      Laws 2001, LB 398, § 18. 

Annotations

Sections of drug paraphernalia statute making it unlawful to deliver, possess with intent to deliver, manufacture with intent to deliver, or advertise drug paraphernalia in circumstances where one knows or "reasonably should know" that items will be used with drugs or that purpose of advertisement is to promote sale of drug paraphernalia are not unconstitutional on ground that they would permit conviction under impermissibly vague negligence standard and would leave innocent sellers in untenable posture of trying to divine intentions of their buyers where, under sections, seller has to already have intended that item be sold for drug use before his knowledge of its use by a buyer came into play. Casbah, Inc. v. Thone, 651 F.2d 551 (8th Cir. 1981).

Where statute includes requirement of intent in definition of drug paraphernalia and enumerates factors which officer has to consider in determining whether object is drug paraphernalia, statute does not alter requirement that searches and seizures be based on probable cause and is thus not violative of fourth amendment. Casbah, Inc. v. Thone, 651 F.2d 551 (8th Cir. 1981).
28-443
Delivery of drug paraphernalia to a minor; penalty

Any person eighteen years of age or older who violates section 28-442 by delivering drug paraphernalia to a person under eighteen years of age who is at least three years his or her junior shall be guilty of a Class I misdemeanor.

Source

      Laws 1980, LB 991, § 5. 
28-444
Advertisement of drug paraphernalia; unlawful; penalty

(1) It shall be unlawful for any person to place in any newspaper, magazine, handbill, or other publication any advertisement, knowing, or under circumstances where one reasonably should know, that the purpose of the advertisement, in whole or in part, is to promote the sale of objects designed or intended for use as drug paraphernalia.

(2) Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a Class III misdemeanor.

Source

      Laws 1980, LB 991, § 6. 

Annotations

Sections of drug paraphernalia statute making it unlawful to deliver, possess with intent to deliver, manufacture with intent to deliver, or advertise drug paraphernalia in circumstances where one knows or "reasonably should know" that items will be used with drugs or that purpose of advertisement is to promote sale of drug paraphernalia are not unconstitutional on ground that they would permit conviction under impermissibly vague negligence standard and would leave innocent sellers in untenable posture of trying to divine intentions of their buyers where, under sections, seller has to already have intended that item be sold for drug use before his knowledge of its use by a buyer came into play. Casbah, Inc. v. Thone, 651 F.2d 551 (8th Cir. 1981).

The prohibition of advertising that promotes, in whole or in part, sale of objects designed or intended for use as drug paraphernalia regulates commercial speech in its narrowest sense, i.e., speech which proposes a commercial transaction and which is entitled to lesser protection than other constitutionally guaranteed expression where statute facially does not reach speech which merely glorifies drug culture without direct invitation to purchase specific items. Advertising promoting sale of drug paraphernalia encourages activities which are otherwise crimes under Nebraska law and is thus analogous to advertisements promoting sale of narcotics or soliciting prostitution and can constitutionally be prohibited. Although this statute prohibits advertisements that "only in part" have purpose of promoting sale of drug paraphernalia, court of appeals is obliged to presume legislative intent to act within constitutional bounds, and thus, under statute, where drug paraphernalia is advertised along with innocent items, statute forbids only that part of the advertisement relating to drug paraphernalia and remainder of advertisement is not condemned. Casbah, Inc. v. Thone, 651 F.2d 551 (8th Cir. 1981).
28-445
Imitation controlled substance; prohibited acts; determination; penalties; seizure

(1) Any person who knowingly and intentionally manufactures, distributes, delivers, or possesses with intent to distribute or deliver an imitation controlled substance shall:

(a) For the first offense, be guilty of a Class III misdemeanor; and

(b) For the second and all subsequent offenses, be guilty of a Class II misdemeanor.

(2) In determining whether a substance is an imitation controlled substance the court or other authority concerned shall consider all relevant factors, including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) Whether the substance is represented as having an effect similar to or the same as an illicit controlled substance;

(b) Whether the substance is represented by way of terminology which is deceptively similar to or the same as that describing a particular controlled substance;

(c) Whether the dosage unit price substantially exceeds the reasonable price of a similar dosage unit of like chemical composition sold over the counter;

(d) Whether the substance was approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration for over-the-counter sales and contained the packaging and labeling information approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration;

(e) Whether the substance is packaged in a manner and quantity similar to or the same as that commonly used for illicit controlled substances;

(f) Whether the dosage unit appearance of the substance is deceptively similar to that of a particular controlled substance;

(g) Whether the substance is distributed to persons who represent it as a controlled substance or controlled substance analogue, under circumstances which indicate the distributor knows, intends, or should know that his or her distributee is making or will make such representations; and

(h) Whether the person in possession or control of the substance utilized deception, fraud, or evasive tactics or actions to prevent the seizure, discovery, or detection of the substance by law enforcement.

(3) Any substance possessed, distributed, or delivered in violation of this section shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture as provided in section 28-431.

Source

      Laws 1985, LB 406, § 5; 

      Laws 2014, LB811, § 16.

Effective Date: July 18, 2014
28-450
Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine; immediate precursor; prohibited acts; violation; penalty

No person shall sell, distribute, or otherwise transfer any drug product containing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine, or their salts, isomers, or salts of isomers, if the person knows that the transferee will use the drug product as an immediate precursor to any controlled substance. No person shall unlawfully sell, distribute, or otherwise transfer such a product with reckless disregard as to how the drug product will be used. Any person who violates this section is guilty of a Class III misdemeanor.

Source

      Laws 2001, LB 113, § 3; 
      Laws 2005, LB 117, § 4. 
28-451
Anhydrous ammonia; possession; penalty

No person shall possess anhydrous ammonia with the intent to manufacture methamphetamine. Any person who violates this section is guilty of a Class IV felony.

Source

      Laws 2001, LB 113, § 4. 
28-452
Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine; possession; penalty

No person shall possess ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine, or their salts, isomers, or salts of isomers, with the intent to manufacture methamphetamine. Any person who violates this section is guilty of a Class IV felony.

Source

      Laws 2001, LB 113, § 5. 
28-453
Methamphetamine; retailer education program

The Nebraska State Patrol may develop and maintain a program to inform retailers about illicit methamphetamine production, distribution, and use in Nebraska and devise procedures and forms for retailers to use in reporting to the patrol suspicious purchases, thefts, or other transactions involving any products under the retailers' control which contain ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, or ephedra. Reporting under this section shall be voluntary. Retailers reporting information to the patrol in good faith shall be immune from civil liability.

Source

      Laws 2001, LB 113, § 6. 
28-455
Methamphetamine Awareness and Education Fund; created; use; investment

The Methamphetamine Awareness and Education Fund is created. The Nebraska Commission on Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice shall use the fund to support projects relating to educating retailers and the public on the dangers of methamphetamine. The commission may accept contributions, gifts, grants, and bequests for such purposes and remit them to the State Treasurer for credit to the fund. Any money in the fund available for investment shall be invested by the state investment officer pursuant to the Nebraska Capital Expansion Act and the Nebraska State Funds Investment Act.

Source

      Laws 2001, LB 113, § 8. 
28-456
Phenylpropanolamine or pseudoephedrine; sold without a prescription; requirements; enforcement

(1) Any drug products containing phenylpropanolamine, pseudoephedrine, or their salts, optical isomers, or salts of such optical isomers may be sold without a prescription only if they are:

(a) Labeled and marketed in a manner consistent with the pertinent OTC Tentative Final or Final Monograph;

(b) Manufactured and distributed for legitimate medicinal use in a manner that reduces or eliminates the likelihood of abuse;

(c) Packaged as follows:

(i) Except for liquids, sold in package sizes of not more than three and six-tenths grams of pseudoephedrine base or three and six-tenths grams of phenylpropanolamine base, in blister packs, each blister containing not more than two dosage units, or if the use of blister packs is technically infeasible, in unit dose packets or pouches; and

(ii) For liquids, sold in package sizes of not more than three and six-tenths grams of pseudoephedrine base or three and six-tenths grams of phenylpropanolamine base;

(d) Sold by a person, eighteen years of age or older, in the course of his or her employment to a customer, eighteen years of age or older, with the following restrictions:

(i) No customer shall be allowed to purchase, receive, or otherwise acquire more than three and six-tenths grams of pseudoephedrine base or three and six-tenths grams of phenylpropanolamine base during a twenty-four-hour period;

(ii) No customer shall purchase, receive, or otherwise acquire more than nine grams of pseudoephedrine base or nine grams of phenylpropanolamine base during a thirty-day period; and

(iii) The customer shall display a valid driver's or operator's license, a Nebraska state identification card, a military identification card, an alien registration card, or a passport as proof of identification; and

(e) Stored behind a counter, in an area not accessible to customers, or in a locked case so that a customer needs assistance from an employee to access the drug product.

(2) Any person who sells drug products in violation of this section may be subject to a civil penalty of fifty dollars per day, and for a second or any subsequent violation, the penalty may be one hundred dollars per day. Any such drug products shall be seized and destroyed upon the finding of a violation of this section. The department, in conjunction with the Attorney General, the Nebraska State Patrol, and local law enforcement agencies, shall have authority to make inspections and investigations to enforce this section. In addition, the department may seek injunctive relief for suspected violations of this section.

Source

      Laws 2001, LB 113, § 9; 
      Laws 2005, LB 117, § 5; 
      Laws 2007, LB218, § 1; 
      Laws 2007, LB296, § 36; 
      Laws 2009, LB151, § 2.
28-456.01
Pseudoephedrine or phenylpropanolamine; limitation on acquisition; violation; penalty

(1) No person shall purchase, receive, or otherwise acquire, other than wholesale acquisition by a retail business in the normal course of its trade or business, any drug product containing more than three and six-tenths grams of pseudoephedrine base or three and six-tenths grams of phenylpropanolamine base during a twenty-four-hour period unless purchased pursuant to a medical order. Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a Class IV misdemeanor for the first offense and a Class III misdemeanor for each subsequent offense.

(2) No person shall purchase, receive, or otherwise acquire, other than wholesale acquisition by a retail business in the normal course of its trade or business, any drug product containing more than nine grams of pseudoephedrine base or nine grams of phenylpropanolamine base during a thirty-day period unless purchased pursuant to a medical order. Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a Class IV misdemeanor for the first offense and a Class III misdemeanor for each subsequent offense.

Source

      Laws 2005, LB 117, § 6; 
      Laws 2009, LB151, § 3; 
      Laws 2011, LB20, § 8.
28-457
Methamphetamine; prohibited acts; violation; penalties

(1) For purposes of this section:

(a) Bodily injury has the same meaning as in section 28-109;

(b) Chemical substance means a substance intended to be used as an immediate precursor or reagent in the manufacture of methamphetamine or any other chemical intended to be used in the manufacture of methamphetamine. Intent for purposes of this subdivision may be demonstrated by the substance's use, quantity, manner of storage, or proximity to other precursors or manufacturing equipment;

(c) Child means a person under the age of nineteen years;

(d) Methamphetamine means methamphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its isomers;

(e) Paraphernalia means all equipment, products, and materials of any kind which are used, intended for use, or designed for use in manufacturing, injecting, ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing methamphetamine into the human body;

(f) Prescription has the same meaning as in section 28-401;

(g) Serious bodily injury has the same meaning as in section 28-109; and

(h) Vulnerable adult has the same meaning as in section 28-371.

(2) Any person who knowingly or intentionally causes or permits a child or vulnerable adult to inhale or have contact with methamphetamine, a chemical substance, or paraphernalia is guilty of a Class I misdemeanor. For any second or subsequent conviction under this subsection, any person so offending is guilty of a Class IV felony.

(3) Any person who knowingly or intentionally causes or permits a child or vulnerable adult to ingest methamphetamine, a chemical substance, or paraphernalia is guilty of a Class I misdemeanor. For any second or subsequent conviction under this subsection, any person so offending shall be guilty of a Class IIIA felony.

(4) Any child or vulnerable adult who resides with a person violating subsection (2) or (3) of this section shall be taken into protective custody as provided in the Adult Protective Services Act or the Nebraska Juvenile Code.

(5) Any person who violates subsection (2) or (3) of this section and a child or vulnerable adult actually suffers serious bodily injury by ingestion of, inhalation of, or contact with methamphetamine, a chemical substance, or paraphernalia is guilty of a Class IIIA felony unless the ingestion, inhalation, or contact results in the death of the child or vulnerable adult, in which case the person is guilty of a Class IB felony.

(6) It is an affirmative defense to a violation of this section that the chemical substance was provided by lawful prescription for the child or vulnerable adult and that it was administered to the child or vulnerable adult in accordance with the prescription instructions provided with the chemical substance.

Source

      Laws 2003, LB 43, § 9. 
28-458
Methamphetamine precursor; terms, defined

For purposes of sections 28-458 to 28-462:

(1) Exchange means the National Precursor Log Exchange administered by the National Association of Drug Diversion Investigators;

(2) Methamphetamine precursor means any drug product containing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine that is required to be documented pursuant to the logbook requirements of 21 U.S.C. 830;

(3) Seller means any person who lawfully sells a methamphetamine precursor pursuant to subdivision (1)(d) of section 28-456 or his or her employer; and

(4) Stop-sale alert means a notification sent to a seller indicating that the completion of a methamphetamine precursor sale would result in a violation of subdivision (1)(d)(i) or (ii) of section 28-456.

Source

      Laws 2011, LB20, § 3.
28-459
Methamphetamine precursor; seller; duties; waiver authorized

(1) Beginning January 1, 2012, each seller shall, before completing a sale of a methamphetamine precursor, electronically submit required information to the exchange, if the exchange is available to sellers. Required information shall include, but not be limited to:

(a) The name, age, and address of the person purchasing, receiving, or otherwise acquiring the methamphetamine precursor;

(b) The name of the product and quantity of product purchased;

(c) The date and time of the purchase;

(d) The name or initials of the seller who sold the product; and

(e) The type of identification presented by the customer, the governmental entity that issued the identification, and the number on the identification.

(2) If a seller experiences mechanical or electronic failure of the electronic logging equipment on the sales end of the transaction or a failure of the exchange and is unable to comply with subsection (1) of this section, the seller shall maintain a written log or an alternative electronic recordkeeping mechanism or may refrain from selling any methamphetamine precursor until such time as the seller is able to comply with subsection (1) of this section.

(3) The Attorney General may grant a waiver exempting a seller from compliance with subsection (1) of this section upon a showing of good cause by the seller that he or she is otherwise unable to submit log information by electronic means, including, but not limited to, any financial, technological, or other reason which would place an undue burden on the seller, as established by the Attorney General.

(4) Whenever the exchange generates a stop-sale alert, the seller shall not complete the sale unless the seller has a reasonable fear of imminent bodily harm if he or she does not complete the sale. The exchange shall contain an override function to the stop-sale alert for the seller to use in a situation in which a reasonable fear of imminent bodily harm is present.

(5) This section does not apply if a lawful prescription for the methamphetamine precursor is presented to a pharmacist licensed under the Uniform Credentialing Act.

Source

      Laws 2011, LB20, § 4.
28-460
Methamphetamine precursor; access to exchange to law enforcement

As a condition of use in Nebraska, the National Association of Drug Diversion Investigators shall provide real-time access to the exchange through its online portal to law enforcement in this state as authorized by the Attorney General and no fee or charge shall be imposed on a seller for the use of the exchange.

Source

      Laws 2011, LB20, § 5.
28-461
thamphetamine precursor; seller; immunity

A seller utilizing in good faith sections 28-458 to 28-462 shall be immune from any civil cause of action based upon an act or omission in carrying out such sections.

Source

      Laws 2011, LB20, § 6.
28-462
Methamphetamine precursor; prohibited acts; penalty

Beginning January 1, 2013, a seller that knowingly fails to submit methamphetamine precursor information to the exchange as required by sections 28-458 to 28-462 or knowingly submits incorrect information to the exchange shall be guilty of a Class IV misdemeanor.

Source

      Laws 2011, LB20, § 7.